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Tuskegee University is a , (HBCU) located in , , . It was established by and . The campus is designated as the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site by the and is the only one in the U.S. to have this designation. The university was home to scientist and to World War II's .

Tuskegee University offers 40 programs, 17 programs, a 5-year accredited professional degree program in , 4 programs, and the . The university is home to over 3,100 students from the U.S. and 30 foreign countries. Tuskegee University was ranked among 2018's best 379 colleges and universities by and 6th among the 2018 best HBCUs.

The university's campus was designed by architect , the first to graduate from the .

Contents

History[]

Planning and establishment[]

History class at Tuskegee, 1902

The school was founded on July 4, 1881, as the Tuskegee for Colored Teachers. This was a result of an agreement made during the 1880 elections in Macon County between a former Confederate Colonel, , who was running on the democratic ticket and a local Black Leader and Republican, Lewis Adams. W.F. Foster propositioned that if Adams could successfully persuade the Black constituents to vote for Foster, if elected, Foster would push the state of Alabama to establish a school for Black people in the county. At the time the majority of Macon County population was Black, thus Black constituents had political power. Adams succeeded and Foster followed through with the school.[] The school became a part of the expansion of higher education for in the former following the , with many schools founded by the northern . A teachers' school was the dream of Lewis Adams, a former slave, and George W. Campbell, a banker, merchant, and former slaveholder, who shared a commitment to the education of blacks. Despite lacking formal education, Adams could read, write, and speak several languages. He was an experienced , harness-maker, and and was a , an acknowledged leader of the community in .

Adams and Campbell had secured ,000 from the State of Alabama for teachers' salaries but nothing for land, buildings, or equipment. Adams, Campbell (replacing Thomas Dryer, who died after his appointment), and M. B. Swanson formed Tuskegee's first board of commissioners. Campbell wrote to the , a in , requesting the recommendation of a teacher for their new school. , the Hampton and a former general, recommended 25-year-old Booker T. Washington, an alumnus and teacher at Hampton. The was 5 and 1/2 miles from Tuskegee to Selma. It was destroyed in the Civil War but then rebuilt in 1880 to connect the Tuskegee Institute to other railroad lines.

As the newly hired in Tuskegee, Booker Washington began classes for his new school in a rundown church and shanty. The following year (1882), he purchased a former of 100 acres in size. In 1973 Tuskegee Institute now Tuskegee University did an oral history interview with Annie Lou "Bama" Miller. In that interview she indicated that her grand mother sold the original 100 acres of land to Booker T. Washington. That oral history interview is located at the Tuskegee University archives. The earliest campus buildings were constructed on that property, usually by students as part of their work-study. By the start of the 20th century, the Tuskegee Institute occupied nearly 2,300 acres.

Based on his experience at the , Washington intended to train students in skills, morals, and religious life, in addition to academic subjects. Washington urged the teachers he trained "to return to the plantation districts and show the people there how to put new energy and new ideas into farming as well as into the intellectual and moral and religious life of the people." Washington's second wife , was instrumental to the success and helped raise funds for the school.

Gradually, a rural extension program was developed, to take progressive ideas and training to those who could not come to the campus. Tuskegee alumni founded smaller schools and colleges throughout the ; they continued to emphasize teacher training.

Booker T. Washington's leadership[]

Booker T. Washington

As a young free man after the Civil War, Washington sought a formal education. He worked his way through Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (now Hampton University) and attended college at in Washington, DC (now Virginia Union University). He returned to Hampton as a teacher.

Hired as principal of the new (for the training of teachers) in , Booker Washington opened his school on July 4, 1881, on the grounds of the . The following year, he bought the grounds of a former . Over the decades he expanded the institute there; It has been designated as a .

The school expressed Washington's dedication to the pursuit of self-reliance. In addition to training teachers, he also taught the practical skills needed for his students to succeed at farming or other trades typical of the rural South, where most of them came from. He wanted his students to see labor as practical, but also as beautiful and dignified. As part of their work-study programs, students constructed most of the new buildings. Many students earned all or part of their expenses through the construction, agricultural, and domestic work associated with the campus, as they reared livestock and raised crops, as well as producing other goods.

The continuing expansion of black education took place against a background of increased violence against blacks in the South, after white Democrats regained power in state governments and imposed white supremacy in society. They instituted legal and a variety of laws, after most blacks by constitutional amendments and electoral rules from 1890 until 1964. Against this background, Washington's vision, as expressed in his "" speech, became controversial and was challenged by new leaders, such as , who argued that blacks should have opportunities for study in academic programs, as well as vocational institutes. In the early twentieth century, Du Bois envisioned the rise of "" to lead African Americans.

Washington gradually attracted notable scholars to Tuskegee, including the botanist , one of the university's most renowned professors.

1881–1900[]

Perceived as a spokesman for black "industrial" education, Washington developed a network of wealthy American who donated to the school, such as , , , , , and . An early champion of the concept of , Henry H. Rogers was a major anonymous contributor to Tuskegee and dozens of other black schools for more than fifteen years.

Thanks to recruitment efforts on the island and contacts with the U.S. military, Tuskegee had a particularly large population of students during these years. Following small-scale recruitments prior to the 1898–99 school year, the university quickly gained popularity among ambitious Afro-Cubans. In the first three decades of the school's existence, dozens of Afro-Cubans enrolled at Tuskegee each year, becoming the largest population of foreign students at the school.

1900–1915[]

Washington developed a major relationship with , a self-made man who rose to the top of in . He had long been concerned about the lack of educational resources for blacks, especially in the South. After meeting with Washington, Rosenwald agreed to serve on Tuskegee's Board of Directors. He also worked with Washington to stimulate funding to train teachers' schools such as Tuskegee and Hampton institutes.

Washington was a tireless fundraiser for the institute. In 1905 he kicked off an endowment campaign, raising money all over America in 1906 for the 25th anniversary of the institution. Along with wealthy donors, he gave a lecture at in New York on January 23, 1906, called the , in which Mark Twain spoke.

Beginning with a pilot program in 1912, Rosenwald created model rural schools and stimulated construction of new schools across the South. Tuskegee architects developed the model plans, and some students helped build the schools. Rosenwald created a fund but required communities to raise matching funds, to encourage local collaboration between blacks and whites. Rosenwald and Washington stimulated the construction and operation of more than 5,000 small community schools and supporting resources for the education of blacks throughout the rural into the 1930s.

Despite his travels and widespread work, Washington continued as principal of Tuskegee. Concerned about the educator's health, Rosenwald encouraged him to slow his pace. In 1915, Washington died at the age of 59, as a result of . At his death, Tuskegee's endowment exceeded US.5 million. He was buried on the campus near the chapel.

Tuskegee campus, 1916 Tuskegee campus, 1916

Tuskegee, in cooperation with church missionary activity, work to set up industrial training programs in Africa.

1915–1940[]

Tuskegee Institute, c. 1916

The years after World War I challenged the basis of the Tuskegee Institute. Teaching was still seen as a critical calling, but southern society was changing rapidly. Attracted by the growth of industrial jobs in the North, including the rapid expansion of the Pennsylvania Railroad, suffering job losses because of the and increasing mechanization of agriculture, and fleeing extra-legal violence, hundreds of thousands of rural blacks moved from the South to Northern and Midwestern industrial cities in the . A total of 1.5 million moved during this period. In the South, industrialization was occurring in cities such as and other booming areas. The programs at Tuskegee, based on an agricultural economy, had to change. During and after , migration to the North continued, with California added as a destination because of its defense industries. A total of 5 million blacks moved out of the South from 1940–1970.

Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment[]

From 1932 to 1972, Tuskegee Institute collaborated with the United States government in the by which the effects of deliberately untreated syphilis were studied. These experiments have become infamous for misleading study participants by telling them that they were being treated for syphilis when in fact researchers were only monitoring the progression of the disease. Syphilis is a debilitating disease that can leave its victims with permanent neurological damage and horrifying scars (see ). Penicillin was discovered in 1927 and it was being used to treat human disease by the early 1940s. In 1947 it had become the gold standard in treating syphilis and often only required one intramuscular dose to completely eliminate the disease. The researchers were well aware of this information and in order to continue their experiments, they chose to withhold the life-saving treatment. The researchers proceeded to actively deter study participants from obtaining penicillin from other physicians. The patients were told that they had "bad blood." This experiment was conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with the Tuskegee Institute. This was a direct violation of the , however, not a single researcher, nor the Tuskegee University was legally punished.

World War II and after[]

Tuskegee University Chapel (1969)

In 1941, in an effort to train black , the established a training program at Tuskegee Institute, using , about 4 miles (6.4 km) away from the campus center. The graduates became known as the . The at Moton Field was listed on the in 1998. Army, Air Force, and Navy have programs on campus today.

Numerous presidents have visited Tuskegee, including . was also interested in the Institute and its aeronautical school. In 1941 she visited Tuskegee Army Air Field and worked to have African Americans get the chance as pilots in the military. She corresponded with F.D. Patterson, the third president of the Tuskegee Institute, and frequently lent her support to programs.

The notable architect was commissioned in 1958 to produce a new campus master plan. In 1960 he was awarded, along with the partnership of John A. Welch and Louis Fry, the commission for a new chapel, perhaps the most significant modern building constructed in Alabama.

The postwar decades were a time of continued expansion for Tuskegee, which added new programs and departments, adding graduate programs in several fields to reflect the rise of professional studies. For example, its School of Veterinary Medicine was added in 1944. Mechanical Engineering was added in 1953, and a four-year program in Architecture in 1957, with a six-year program in 1965.

In 1985, Tuskegee Institute achieved university status and was renamed Tuskegee University.

Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site[]

In 1965 Tuskegee University was declared a for the significance of its academic programs, its role in higher education for African-Americans, and its status in United States history. Congress authorized the establishment of the Tuskegee Institute .

The National Historic Site includes The Oaks, Booker T. Washington's home and the Museum. As the landmark designation did not define a limited area, the district is believed to have included the entire Tuskegee University campus at the time. Points of "special historic interest," noted in the landmark description include:

The is at Moton Field, in Tuskegee, Alabama.

Legacy[]

Built in 1857, Grey Columns now serves as the home of the president of Tuskegee University. It was added to the on January 11, 1980.

The Tuskegee Institute commissioned a documentary[] about the college for use as a marketing tool and to preserve memories of Washington. A Tuskegee Pilgrimage, was a collection of interviews with faculty and students. It was produced by , who in 1922 had made an independent documentary about Washington, titled The Leader of His Race.

Tuskegee University campus[]

Tuskegee University provides 24-hour Campus Police protection for its students. All officers are state certified.

  • The Lifting the Veil of Ignorance statue of Booker T. Washington was designed by sculptor Charles Keck and unveiled on April 5, 1922. The statue depicts Dr. Washington lifting the veil of ignorance off his people, who had once been enslaved, by showing them the ways of a better life through education and skills.

  • James Henry Meriwether Henderson Hall is Tuskegee University's new Agricultural Life Science Teaching, Extension and Research Building. Henderson Hall provides labs for teaching introductory courses in animal, plant, soil, and environmental sciences as well as biology and chemistry.

  • Built in 1906 and completely renovated in 2013, Tompkins Hall serves as the primary student dining facility and student center. The building includes a ballroom, an auditorium, a game room, a retail restaurant, and a 24-hour student study with healthy food vending machines. It is home to the offices of the Student Government Association.

  • The Legacy Museum houses: The African collection (contains approximately 900 items), the antiques and miscellaneous items collection and The Lovette W. Harper Collection of African Art. Third Floor exhibition contains "The United States Public Health Service Untreated Syphilis Study in the Negro Male, Macon County, Alabama 1932-1972."

  • Booker T. Washington is laid to rest in the Tuskegee University Campus Cemetery. Many other notable university people are interred on the Tuskegee campus including: George Washington Carver, Cleveland L. Abbott, William L. Dawson, Luther Hilton Foster (4th president), Frederick D. Patterson (3rd president), many other Washington family members and others.

  • Tuskegee University provides on-campus apartment style living for students in the Commons Apartments located across the campus in three different locations

  • Margaret Murray Washington Hall is home to Office of Admission, University Bookstore and additional dining services for the students

  • "The Avenue" is one of the main pedestrian corridors on campus that is rarely open to vehicular traffic

  • Booker T. Washington Boulevard is the main drive into the campus of Tuskegee University

  • Tuskegee University's campus has a park like setting and features many large green areas

  • College of Veterinary Medicine Williams Bowie Hall

  • Tuskegee football game

  • Main entrance to the campus

  • A scenic campus corridor

  • Interior view of the Tuskegee Chapel

  • Fall at Tuskegee University

  • George Washington Carver Museum

  • The Main Library, Hollis Burke Frissell now known as the Ford Motor Company Library/Learning Resource Center

  • Campus banners

  • Andrew F. Brimmer College of Business and Information Sciences

  • Daniel "Chappie" James Center

  • Daniel "Chappie" James Center -Tuskegee basketball pre-game warm-up

  • Daniel "Chappie" James Center basketball game

  • Tuskegee University campus partial view of the "Valley" and the Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center

  • I-85 exit for Tuskegee University

The Tuskegee University Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center[]

The Tuskegee University Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center

The Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center at the renovated Dorothy Hall (built 1901) was established in 1994 on the campus of Tuskegee University by the . The Kellogg Conference Center offers state-of-the-art multimedia meeting rooms, as well as a 300-seat auditorium and a ballroom that accommodates up to 350 guests. Students studying within the College of Business and Information Science & students within the Department of Food and Nutrition Science are able to receive hands on experience at the Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center. The Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center is the only center at a ; there are only 11 worldwide. Other Kellogg Conference Centers in the United States are located at: , and the (Cal Poly Pomona).

Academics[]

A view of the Tuskegee University campus – White Hall bell tower

The academic programs are organized into five Colleges and two Schools: : (1) The College of Agriculture, Environment and Nutrition Sciences; (2) The College of Arts and Sciences; (3) The Brimmer College of Business and Information Science; (4) The College of Engineering; (5) The College of Veterinary Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health; (6), The Taylor School of Architecture and Construction Science; and (7) The School of Education.

Tuskegee houses an undergraduate for qualified rising sophomores (and above) with at least a cumulative 3.2 GPA.

Tuskegee University is accredited with the to award Baccalaureate, Master's, Doctorate, and professional degrees. The following academic programs are accredited by national agencies: Architecture, Business, Education, Engineering, Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Nursing, Occupational Therapy, Social Work, and Veterinary Medicine.

Tuskegee University is the only to offer the (D.V.M.); its School of Veterinary Medicine was established in 1944. The school is fully accredited by the Council on Education of the (AVMA).

College of Veterinary Medicine – Fredrick D Patterson Hall

Tuskegee University offers several Engineering degree programs all with accreditation.

The Aerospace Science Engineering department was established in 1983. Tuskegee University is the first and only to offer an accredited B.S. degree in . The Mechanical Engineering Department was established in 1954 and the Chemical Engineering Department began in 1977; The Department of Electrical Engineering is the largest of five departments within the College of Engineering. The program is accredited by EAC/ (Engineering Accreditation Commission/Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology) and the .

College of Engineering – Luther H. Foster Hall has long been home to one of the nation's best engineering programs containing: Aerospace Science Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Materials Science Engineering, Mechanical and Military Science

The Tuskegee University College of Business and Information Science is fully accredited by the (AACSB-International).

The school of Nursing was established as the Tuskegee Institute Training School of Nurses and registered with the Alabama State board of Nursing, September 1892 under the auspices of the Memorial Hospital. In 1948 the university began its baccalaureate program in Nursing; becoming the first nursing program in the state of Alabama. The Nursing department holds full accreditation from the and is approved by the Alabama State Board of Nursing.

Tuskegee University School of Nursing – Basil O'Connor Hall. Tuskegee Institute Training School of Nurses was registered with the State Board of Nursing in Alabama in September 1892 under the auspices of Tuskegee University's . In 1948, the School began its baccalaureate program leading to the Bachelor of Science degree in Nursing. This program has the distinction of being the first Baccalaureate Nursing program in the State of Alabama.

The program is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) of the . The Clinical Laboratory Science Program is accredited by the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences. (NAACLS)

Tuskegee University began offering certificates in under the Division of Mechanical Industries in 1893. The 4-year curriculum in architecture leading to the Bachelor of Science degree was initiated in 1957 and the professional 6-year program in 1965. The School of Architecture offers two professional programs: Architecture, and Construction Science and Management. The 5-year Bachelor of Architecture program is fully accredited by the (NAAB). Graduates of the program are qualified to become registered architects.

Robert R. Taylor School of Architecture and Construction Science is home to one of only 2 NAAB-accredited, architecture professional degree programs in the state of Alabama. It is also home to one of the top Construction Science and Management degree programs in the nation.

Rankings[]

  • Tuskegee is tied for 4th place with in the 2017 HBCU Rankings. Tuskegee is the highest ranked HBCU in Alabama.
  • Tuskegee is ranked the 5th "Best Regional College in the South" according to the 2013 Rankings
  • magazine ranks Tuskegee #6 for "Best Colleges for Women in " and ranks Tuskegee among the "600 best colleges and universities" in the country.
  • Tuskegee is ranked 2nd among baccalaureate colleges according to the 2015 Rankings.

Schools and colleges[]

  • College of Agriculture, Environment and Nutrition Science
  • College of Arts and Sciences
  • College of Business and Information Science
  • College of Engineering
  • College of Veterinary Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health
  • School of Architecture and Construction Science
  • School of Education
  • School of Nursing and Allied Health

National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care[]

National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care is the nation's first bioethics center devoted to engaging the sciences, humanities, law and religious faiths in the exploration of the core moral issues which underlie research and medical treatment of African Americans and other under-served people. The official launching of the Center took place two years after President 's apology to the nation, the survivors of the , Tuskegee University, and Tuskegee/ for the U.S. Public Health Service medical experiment (1932–1972), where 399 poor—and mostly illiterate—African American sharecroppers became part of a study on non-treating and natural history of syphilis.

Athletics[]

Main article:

Tuskegee is a member of the (NCAA) and competes within the (SIAC). The university has a total of 10 varsity sports teams, five men's teams called the "Golden Tigers", and five women's teams called the "Tigerettes".

Tuskegee's Men's Basketball won the 2014 SIAC Championship and the 2014 NCAA Division South Region Championship. The Golden Tigers also made it to the Elite Eight during the . Tuskegee's Women's Softball won the 2014 SIAC Championship.

The Tuskegee Department of Athletics sponsors the following sports:

Football[]

Main article:

Tuskegee University's historic Cleveland Leigh Abbott Memorial Alumni Stadium, completed 1924. The stadium was the first of its kind to be built at any HBCU in the south.

The Tuskegee University football team has won 29 SIAC championships (the most in SIAC history). As of 2013 the Golden Tigers continue to be the most successful HBCU with 652 wins.

In 2013 Tuskegee opted not to renew its contract to face rival ( FCS) in the , the oldest black college football classic in the country. Instead, after going 10–2 the Golden Tigers made their first playoff appearance in school history for the 2013 NCAA Division II Football Championship, for which they had qualified in the past but could not participate due to the Turkey Day Classic. Tuskegee competed against the in the first round of the playoffs, but lost 30–27. Tuskegee won the 2014 SIAC Football Championship and advanced to the first round of the NCAA Division II football playoffs with a loss of 20–17 to .

Tuskegee lead the nation in 2013 Division II football average attendance for their three home games.

Baseball[]

The program has won thirteen SIAC championships and has produced several professional players, including , , and .

Softball[]

Tuskegee defeated , 11–7, to claim the 2014 SIAC Softball Championship.

Basketball[]

Tuskegee won the 2013–14 SIAC Championship and advanced to the 2014 NCAA Division II Men's Basketball Tournament. Tuskegee won the NCAA Division II South Regional Championship by defeating 80-59. The Golden Tigers fell to No. 1-ranked Metro State (), 106-87, in the Elite Eight of the NCAA Division II tournament at Ford Center, in .

Track and field[]

See also:

Track began (Men and Women) at Tuskegee in 1916. The first Tuskegee Relays and Meet was held on May 7, 1927; it was the oldest African American relay meet.

The Tuskegee women's team won the championship of the national senior outdoor meet for all athletes 14 times in 1937–1942 and 1944–1951. The team likewise won the AAU national indoor championship four times in 1941, 1945, 1946 and 1948.

Tuskegee's was the first African American woman to win an Olympic gold medal in any sport, at the 1948 Olympic Games in London. , a Tuskegee graduate of architecture, is an Olympian relay runner who competed for the Bahamas.

Student organizations[]

  • SGA
  • Golden Voices Concert Choir
  • Marching Crimson Piper Band

Tuskegee University's marching band is the oldest of all HBCU marching bands, beginning in 1894.

  • Cheerleaders
  • Golden Essence Dance Team
  • Miss Tuskegee University
  • Mr. Tuskegee University
  • Greek Life
  • T.U. Greek C.O.N.S.O. Organizations

Notable faculty and staff[]

Name Department Notability Reference Photography (1916–1927) photographer who made portraits of many black leaders and shot covers for The Crisis magazine African American scientist, botanist, educator, and inventor whose studies and teaching revolutionized agriculture in the Southern United States fighter pilot in the U.S. Air Force, who in 1975 became the first African American to reach the rank of four-star General Photography (1933–1938) photographer who documented working class African Americans, ex-slaves, and black leaders; also served as the institute's official photographer for four decades. Physical education Suffragist, YWCA leader on national level, activist for social and women's health issues, and host of a salon in Harlem early Sierra Leonean nationalist politician who taught at Tuskegee in the late 1920s first African American graduate of , architect for most of the Tuskegee campus buildings and founder of trades programs, served as second in command to Tuskegee's founder and first president, Dr. Booker T. Washington President of (1968-1974); executive vice president and provost of Tuskegee University (1974-1980) Appointed President for 1881–1915 first principal of the university Mathematics 1886 alumni, early writer on civil rights topics

Notable alumni[]

US Air Force general Daniel "Chappie" James Jr. Writer and poet Claude McKay Singer and musician Lionel Richie Aviator John Robinson Actress Danielle Spencer Name Class year Notability Reference(s) Chalmers Archer 1972 author of "Growing Up Black in Mississippi" and "Green Berets in the Vanguard" 1970s writer known as 1927 international civil and human rights activist, the first woman from Alabama to run United States Congress in 1964 (affectionately known as "Queen Mother Amelia"), best known for her role in the "" event in Selma, Alabama on March 7, 1965 1899 columnist for the 1937 a member of the Tuskegee Airmen who rose to the rank of Colonel 1909 Baptist minister and civil rights activist 1925 Gold Coast educator, administrator, journalist, editor, Presbyterian minister and fourth Synod Clerk, Presbyterian Church of the Gold Coast 1942 athlete who specialized in high jump, and was the first black woman to win an 70s R&B band whose members met while attending Tuskegee lawyer and city official in New Haven, Connecticut former player General retired Army major general, recipient in Korea – 1950 scholar, author of 1971 lawyer who researched and advocated for the pardon of Clarence Norris, the last surviving Scottsboro Boy B.A. 1946, M.A. 1947 Nutritional researcher and government consultant 1959 President of from 1983–2003 educator, taught at and NFL defensive back political activist and Comintern functionary 1913 singer, founder of Mwalimu School in Harlem, president of Texas Association of Negro Musicians Admiral Mack C. Gaston 1964 U.S. Navy 31 years, Surface War Officer, commanded two ships U.S. Representative from Harold Michael Harvey 1973 scholar, lawyer, journalist, American Pundit Prize winner, author of "Paper Puzzle" U.S. Representative from First African-American physician in Arizona president of 1942 US Air Force Fighter pilot, in 1975 became the first African American to reach the rank of four-star General inventor of the , former aerospace engineer former NFL player 1971 radio host whose daily program, The Tom Joyner Morning Show, is syndicated across the United States and heard by over 10 million radio listeners. 20th century 1940 former dean of the College of Medicine at and US Army Brigadier General (retired) 1912 writer and poet, Leo Morton 1968 chancellor, at Kansas City 1939 literary and jazz critic, novelist, and biographer 1978 former mayor of 1929 military, civilian, and and college administrator from Louisiana NFL player Dr. Dorothy Richey 1965 first woman appointed head of athletics at a co-educational college or university in the at in 1975 1955 (1980–1984) Rapper R&B singer, winner a member of the and a colonel in early aviator and colonel in the against Fascist Italy during WWII 1943 microbiologist who is currently professor emeritus at president of the Herman J. Russell 1953 founder and former president and CEO of H. J. Russell Construction Co., the largest minority owned construction company in the US wife of 1919 oil broker and civil rights advocate television actress best known as Dee from the 1970s TV show 1896 lawyer, first African American to practice law in Oregon defensive back actor, comedian, and television producer 1943 First African-American woman in the North Carolina General Assembly (1972) abstract painter president of 2000 former NFL player for the , , former NFL player educator and humanitarian, founder of Dr. St. Aubyn Bartlett 1989 State Minister, , June 2011 – November 2011 Nick J. Mosby 2002 Baltimore City Councilman Kelly Alexander Sr. North Carolina NAACP president Wilson A. Head 1940 international civil and human rights activist, founder of Urban Alliance for Race Relations, Canada, 1975. 2002 State's Attorney in Baltimore, MD

See also[]

References[]

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Further reading[]

  • , Lost Sounds: Blacks and the Birth of the Recording Industry, 1890-1919, 320-327. University of Illinois Press, 2004. Early recordings by the Tuskegee Institute Singers.

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